Using Music: The Kitchen Sisters

February 4th, 2014 | The Kitchen Sisters | Series:
The Kitchen Sisters

The Kitchen Sisters

Editor’s Note: Here’s another in our new series on using music in radio stories. Transom’s friends, The Kitchen Sisters (Davia Nelson and Nikki Silva), tell you how they select and blend music into their signature rhythmic pieces. Special Bonus: Audio engineer Jim McKee gives up his EQ notching and ducking secrets. If you have any idea what this means, you’re going to like this tip.

As ever, the essay is illustrated with audio examples and you can talk it over with Nikki and Davia.
Jay A

A Small Case Study:  An Unexpected Kitchen: The George Foreman Grill

An Unexpected Kitchen was one of the first stories in the Hidden Kitchens series on Morning Edition. As we began to score it (which happens at almost the same moment we get the idea for a story, start to cast it and do the interviews), we decided to give ourselves some rules for creating the score. We don’t usually work that way, but here we were, starting a new series and it seemed time for new rules and a challenge.  Because George Foreman grew up in the Fifth Ward in Houston, Texas, we decided all the music in the story would emanate from there.

We listened to everything we could get our hands on.  But after hours of hearing some great, and not-so-great music, we couldn’t find one piece that really worked with the story we were telling. We’re usually looking for instrumentals. Or something with a long musical intro, an instrumental solo in the middle, and a long tail of instrumental music at the end — no lyrics. We graft beginnings, middles and ends (the instrumental bits) together to use as beds for our stories to lie on. We like it when the music pops at the top and changes rhythms and builds, moving the story forward — a strong drum beat, a deep guitar chord, a startling saxophone — like Moondog’s Symphonique and Bird’s Lament, or Thelonius Monk’s Misterioso, or a cut from Kronos Quartet’s Nuevo… We’re looking for something that moves the story somewhere new and sets a mood and a tone.

When the Fifth Ward concept didn’t quite pan out, we decided to expand the search to “music recorded in Houston.” We sifted through dozens and dozens of songs — still couldn’t find it. There was great music, but not music that would tuck into this piece. All right, how about “music from Texas?” That’s when we found Robert Shaw, “The Ma Grinder,” on Arhoolie Records. We loved the driving piano, but suddenly came upon these lyrics: “My name is Piggly Wiggly, I’ve Got Groceries on my Shelf…” Mostly we tend to steer away from lyrics in our stories because they can get too literal if you don’t watch out. But these were so great. And his style of piano playing lay in perfectly under George’s story.

Robert Shaw played Texas piano in the “Santa Fe” style, named after the Santa Fe Railroad that ran through the state and the barrelhouse bars along its route. Piano players there favored music that mirrored the rhythm of the train. Shaw was one of the best. When he retired he moved outside of Austin and opened an icehouse, and sold barbeque. He felt like a hidden kitchen in his own right and his music was mixed into the story. 

Okay, the Texas music angle was working. But suddenly, when we were working on the part of the piece where George Foreman says, “I learned how to disguise my not having any food…” and Jeffrey Newton, a homeless man from Chicago, starts talking about “trailblazing” (“When you’re homeless, you’ve got to blaze a trail to find food…”), Booker T and the MG’s “Hang ‘Em High” jumped in our heads and suddenly Booker T jumped into the mix, and fit. Booker T is Memphis music, not Texas music. Oh well, you’ve got to make rules and break rules.

What We Look For and How We Add It To The Mix

When we’re working with music, we’re often looking for something that isn’t too dense, maybe even spare, but has a strong rhythm and pulse, unless we’re trying to make an emphatic point. We don’t want to drown out the storyteller, or create something so busy that the music competes with the story. Sometimes we use EQ or add a bit of reverb to find a way that the voice notches into the music just so, so they’re working together and are not in competition.  

We do the final mix of nearly all our stories with the brilliant sound designer, Jim McKee.  We asked him to share his “secret EQ sauce” for this Transom case study. Jim said:

With human speech, much of the acoustical information comes to us in vowels and consonants. Vowels tend to fall in the 120 – 140 Hz range, but how we distinguish different vowels at various pitches, falls around 2,760 Hz, or 2.76 kHz.  Consonants reside around 5,630 Hz, or 5.6 kHz.  I use EQ to help clarify the vowels and consonants, a decibel or two, plus or minus, goes a long way at these frequencies. 

Typically, I put a corresponding set of notch EQ filters with these same frequencies on the music and duck them down 2 to 6 decibels (depending on the voice and content of the music).  What that allows you to do is to have the music remain more present; rather than pulling the entire music track down 2 – 6 decibels, you just pull back the frequencies that are making it difficult to hear what is being said.

Got it? There you go. Your pieces are never going to sound the same now that you’ve got this arrow in your quiver.  

Other Music Tips

We often cut music to fit our tracks. And loop sections of it too. We sometimes add a little pause, or take a bit away to have the voice nestle onto an instrument or a beat. Sometimes we spread out a story so it really flies with the music. We’ll often graft the end of a piece of music to another section to create more drama, or give a story, or the whole piece, an end. We often use the same piece of music at the open and close of a piece, as a sort of bookend or frame, a repeating theme. Once we choose a piece of music we edit the voice track so it aligns with the rise and fall and rhythm of the music. The music is the driver of the scene, and the story becomes the lyrics of the song.

When we interview people we always ask them to tell us about their own “soundtrack,” the music that captured the time and place they are telling us about. These songs probably make it into about 20% of the stories we do. A lot of times the literal music of a story doesn’t work as well as something on a more intuitive level, but when it does, it’s something we love. We also ask people to sing for us. We’ll try to score mixing the sound of the person we’re interviewing, singing, cross fading with the recording from the era. When it works it’s cool. But it doesn’t always work.

Music, it can’t be too thick or busy or textured. It can’t compete or it swallows up and drowns out a voice. You don’t want it too low or too high under the story. We experiment with the levels every time. Sometimes we like to have the person disappear into the music — their voice fades slowly as the music is rising slowly and they are swallowed and gone. We use music, but we also use sound to score our stories. The beeps from listener phone messages that we use to launch many stories are some of our favorite sonic elements to work with, and we drop them like pixie dust into the mix whenever we can.

About The Kitchen Sisters

The Kitchen Sisters (Davia Nelson & Nikki Silva), along with Jay Allison, are producers of the duPont-Columbia Award-winning NPR series Hidden Kitchens, two Peabody Award-winning NPR collaborations, Lost & Found Sound and The Sonic Memorial Project. They also produced the NPR series, The Hidden World of Girls, hosted by Tiny Fey. Their most recent series, The Making Of… [what people make in the Bay Area and why] was a Localore Project with KQED, Zeega and AIR. They are the authors of Hidden Kitchens: Stories, Recipes, and More, a New York Times Notable Book of the Year. They are currently working on a new season of Hidden Kitchens stories that will be heard on Morning Edition this fall, as well as a Broadway musical based on their story, WHER: 1000 Beautiful Watts, about the first all-girl radio station in the nation, and a new book, and teaching at the UC Berkeley Graduate School of Journalism. The Kitchen Sisters are known for their nationwide collaborations that bring thousands of listeners into the public media storytelling process.

You can find more features about Using Music here.


26 Comments on “Using Music: The Kitchen Sisters”

  • Kevin Kelly says:

    Great stuff Sisters! Thank you and to Transom.

  • Kevin Kelly says:

    I have only produced a few short audio narratives but working on a few more. I am transitioning from a career spent in the classroom to one writing stories and sharing my photography on traveltheworldover.org. I hope to complete a future Transom workshop. I tell you I have a much deeper appreciation for George Forman after listening to your story!

  • Rhkennerly says:

    Thanks for the eq tip, superb!

  • Hey, Nikki and Davia! Always lovely to hear your work! A BIG fan of yours…

    Hugggs,

    Kelly O’Brien
    KUSP

  • mperryphd says:

    Very nice piece and great tips on the use of music. When wouldn’t you use music?

    • Hi Nancy! What a great question. We don’t want to go wall to wall music in a story. A story heard in the clear, with nothing underneath it, just the true naked sound is a powerful and important and stands out in contrast to stories that have music that they ar riding on. Especially when the interview has a strong sense of place –be t bids or kids ayg inthbagrground or sprinklers… Experiment. Try it with and without. There are no hard and fans rules.

  • “What is EQ and where do I find it,” he asked confusedly. I really need a workshop! Check out immigrant stories.net when you get a chance. Thanks for the wonderful radio, you two too inspired the Immigrant Stories Project.

  • Nancy Camden says:

    Stimulated me to start playing. I also need a video demonstration of the EQ. I immediately went to Adobe Audition to see if I could do this technique. Drat! Foiled again. I found “Filter and EQ” and started messing round but couldn’t come up with the technique.

    • Steve Rubin says:

      In Audition you can set this kind of EQ using Effects > Filter & EQ > Notch Filter. Then for the speech track, set a ~1.5 db gain on 2760hz and 5630hz. For the music track, do the same thing but take them down 2-6db instead. See this screenshot: http://i.imgur.com/L6KJ6Xq.png

    • Hi Nancy, let me see if we can get Jim McKee involved here. We come up with these ideas but it is wizard Jim who knows how to lay down the sonic law when it comes to filtering and eq. He does it so intuitively. Let’s see if he has time to create something visual that helps clariynhisntehnique. Back soon with more info.

      • jonna says:

        I was wondering if you ended up making a tutorial on the filtering and EQ — I haven’t been able to figure out how to do it. I find your work very inspiring! This post helped me with a current project that uses industrial sounds as a kind of symphony to describe the loss of jobs in a town. Also, the I found the George Foreman story a very unique way to talk about homelessness, community and FOOD.

  • Ruth Goldman says:

    Thanks to both of you and to transom.org. Just passed this along to my students–they are totally getting into radio stories now!

  • We’re in the midst of producing a new season of Hidden Kitchens stories for Morning Edition. We’re looking for great Italian instrumental music, especially Sicilian music, and also Russian music for our story about Dissident Kitchens. Anyone have any music to suggest?

  • Check out Gino D’Auri. He’s the grandson of an Italian Gypsy, plays guitar, and although Sicilian music is characterized by mandolin and guitar as a backup, this man’s playing stands on it’s own. It’s just different enough to appeal. The album is Flamenco Mystico, and the cut I like for it’s not-to-bright brightness is “Guajira Antigua” – means ‘old time country music’.

    Looking forward to the new series!

    Best,

    Kelly O’Brien

    • Kelly. Great lead. Thank you. Gino D’Auri is new to us. Like the sound of his lineage. We’ll let you know what happens. It’s one of the things we like best about producing stories, discovering new music and experimenting with different sounds, rhythms and textures to build a scene and add further dimension and tension to the piece. We’ve got some great Palermo hip hop, some Sicilian sheherd’s Jews harp, singer Matilde Polliti, the gypsy singer Modugno….and a tour of the Museum of the Anti-Mafia. Anyone else have some thoughts on Italian, Old English or Russian music. We’re in heavy scoring mode.

  • Ally TK says:

    This post is so helpful! Can’t wait to try the “secret EQ sauce”. Thanks all!

  • Hi Ally, Give it a try and let us know how it goes. We’re about to mix a new piece with Jim tomorrow, the one about anti-Mafia wine, and I know we’ll be relying on that technique for the layering of sound and story.

  • Just want to say how much I have enjoyed reading through this – in the middle of editing a long form piece on a singer/storyteller, so very much grappling with these issues at the moment. Particularly appreciated the technical tips about EQ.
    Many thanks, Transom, Davia, Nikki & Jim.

  • Hey Everybody! Be sure and read the piece Andrew Kurjata wrote and forwarded to us and Transom. It’s full of such insight and challenge.

    I love that quote he included from Jonathan Mitchell’s Using Music : “If you want to add music because you think the person talking is boring, you don’t really need to add music — what you need is better material. If you want to add music to mask background noise, what you really need is to make a better recording.”

    We just mixed the Mafia Wine story, which at the moment we’re calling “The Pizza Connection.” I notice we were more sparse than usual with the music. I wonder if writing this article had anything to do with it.

    W

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